Plotting likert and other rating scales

As a remedy, you should reverse the scales of all positive or negative statements. If the lowest value of the Likert scale is 1, in SAS you can use this simple formula to reverse the scale: (new item = (1 + maximum rating) - item). For example, if the Likert scale ranges from 1-7, the value "1" in a negative statement will change to "7" (8 - 1 ...

Philistines in the bible